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Tips to Beat the Heat With Your Furry Friend

Is Your Pet Drinking Enough?

If your dog isn’t drinking as much water as she used to, it may not always be a cause for concern.  Our dog Winnie doesn’t drink as much as she should because she has a hard time finding the water bowl. So we compensate by soaking her kibble to make it soupy.  Most likely though, your pet is drinking enough to stay hydrated.

Keeping hydrated is important if your dog is suffering through bouts of diarrhea, vomiting, overheating or chronic illnesses such as diabetes, kidney disease, or cancer.  This means they’re likely loosing electrolytes as well which is important to maintain proper sodium, potassium and chloride levels.

If you want to check and see if your pet is hydrated here are a couple tips you can follow.

Observe their habits

Dehydrated pets will look more tired than normal. They will urinate less and their urine may have a stronger smell.  They may also refuse to eat, and not be interested in playing or have trouble walking.  Knowing your pet and its habits can help you identify altered behaviors that can indicate whether they’re feeling under the weather.

Skin on the back of the neck

Pull the skin up on the back of the neck near the skull and let go.  If the skin sinks back down fairly quickly, you’re good to go.  If the skin sinks slowly your dog is on the verge of being dehydrated.  Should the skin not go down at all, you need to seek veterinary care and let them know if there have been any symptoms such as diarrhea or vomiting.  Smaller dogs, and cats, can get dehydrated quicker than larger dogs.

 The Eyes

Sunken eyes are a sign of dehydration due to the shrinkage of tissue.  Just like us, your pet’s body is made up of mostly water.  Dehydration can cause the pad around the eye to shrink and it can decrease the water content of the eyeball itself, thus looking sunken in.

The Gums

Touching your pet’s gums can be a good way to tell if they’re dehydrated as well.  Lift up their upper lip and touch it firmly with your finger.  The gum will turn white and should turn back to pink fairly quickly.  If it stays white for some time, they are likely dehydrated.  Their gums should also be glossy and feel wet to the touch. Feeling sticky or looking dull is a sign of dehydration as well.

Please don’t attempt home remedies when time is against you.  If you think your pet is seriously ill or showing any signs of dehydration you should contact your veterinarian immediately as this is a potentially life threatening issue.

United Pet Group – Voluntarily Withdraw

United Pet Group Inc., Voluntarily Withdraws “Ultra Blend Gourmet Food for Parakeets,” “ēCotrition Grains & Greens Nutritional Supplement for Parakeets,” “ēCotrition Grains & Greens Nutritional Supplement for Canaries and Finches,” and “ēCotrition Grains & Greens Nutritional Supplement for Cockatiels” Due to Possible Salmonella Contamination

Click here to  read more…

Are flea treatments dangerous for your pets?

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is prohibiting the sale of counterfeit flea treatments by retailers and distributors that could pose serious health risks for pets.  These faux treatments, packaged in cartons designed to look like “Frontline” and “Advantage” products, have been illegally imported into the United States.

Dangerous Doses

One of the ways these phony pesticide treatments pose a danger to your pets is by labeling doses intended for dogs on products labeled for use on cats. Formulas are calculated on a pet’s weight and giving a cat medication prescribed for a dog could induce vomiting, seizures and death, says Dr. Cori Gross, a field veterinarian for VPI Pet Insurance.

If you think that your pet has been given a counterfeit flea treatment, contact your veterinarian. You can also contact the National Pesticide Information Center about poisonings at 1-800-858-7378.

Check Flea Medications for Authenticity

Manufacturers of these two product lines are not responsible for the counterfeit products; the EPA says that retailers might have inadvertently sold both legitimate and counterfeit flea treatments. The agency suggests that consumers determine for themselves whether they have purchased a counterfeit product.

If you discover a counterfeit product, alert the store manager and the EPA. Contact the office that represents your region.

The following are some criteria from the EPA to help consumers determine whether the product is authentic. If the product doesn’t contain all of the following information then the product is most likely counterfeit.

Frontline Flea Products

  • The lot number on the retail carton should match lot number on applicator package and/or individual applicators.
  • Instruction leaflet should be included. The following information should be listed: First-aid statements, including emergency U.S. telephone numbers; precautionary statements for humans and pets; directions for use; and storage and disposal statements.
  • Pesticide is contained in an applicator package, which is child-resistant. Directions for opening child-resistant applicator package include an illustration that looks like the applicator package. Directions say, “To remove applicator, use scissors or lift and remove plastic tab to expose foil, then pull down.”
  • Legitimate applicator package has a notch between the individual applicator packages, which are typically absent on counterfeit products.
  • Text on the package and applicator are in English only.
  • Frontline Applicator Packages: Each individual applicator has a label that includes the registrant’s name “Merial;” the product name; the EPA registration number; the net contents in fluid ounces (not in metric measure, i.e., ml); percentage of active ingredient (fipronil for Frontline Top Spot products; and fipronil and (S)-methoprene for Frontline Plus products); and the statements “CAUTION,” “Keep out of reach of children,” and “See full label for additional directions.”
  • Applicator label for dog products includes the size of the dog in pounds on which the product is to be used.

Advantage Flea Products

  • Check the language that is printed on the applicator tubes. Legitimate Advantage products contain applicator tubes that are printed in English. (Labels printed in French or German indicates a fake product.)
  • Tubes include the EPA registration number, the word WARNING, and child hazard warning (Keep Out of Reach of Children).
  • Applicator tubes will include a reference statement that refers users to the main labeling for directions for use and will include the manufacturing company’s name (Bayer).
  • Applicator tubes contain an active ingredient statement that agrees with the active ingredient statement on the retail carton (9.1 percent imidacloprid). Counterfeit products might have an active ingredient statement, such as 10 percent.

Identify Counterfeit Flea Products

Below is a list of brand names and corresponding EPA registration numbers that many have been reproduced by counterfeiters. The bogus products might use identical names and numbers.

Frontline: Frontline Top Spot for Cats (EPA Reg. No. 65331-2); Frontline Top Spot for Dogs (EPA Reg. No. 65331-3); Frontline Plus for Cats (EPA Reg. No. 65331-4); Frontline Plus for Dogs (EPA Reg. No. 65331-5).
Advantage: Advantage 10 for Dogs (EPA Reg. No. 11556-117); Advantage 20 for Dogs (EPA Reg. No. 11556-119); Advantage 55 for Dogs (EPA Reg. No. 11556-120); Advantage 100 for Dogs (EPA Reg. No. 11556-122); Advantage 9 for Cats (EPA Reg. No. 11556-116); Advantage 18 for Cats (EPA Reg. No. 11556-118).

Pay Attention to Over-the-Counter Product Labels

Cat owners should avoid over-the-counter flea medications including flea bombs, dips and shampoos that contain the pesticides pyrethrin and permethrin. These ingredients are dangerous to cats, and have been known to cause vomiting, seizures, skin reactions and death. The insecticides are so dangerous they shouldn’t even be applied to dogs that come in contact with cats, says Gross. (While the treatments might not necessarily pose a danger to healthy dogs, they could cause a bad reaction in a dog with a predisposed condition.)

It’s especially important that pet owners do not apply a product intended for dogs on a cat, says Dr. David W. Reinhard, a consulting veterinarian for VPI. “The formulation of Bio Spot for cats and dogs is completely different,” he explains. Bio Spot for dogs and Zodiac Spot On contain the insecticide permethrin. Hartz UltraGuard Pro, Flea & Tick Drops for Dogs contains Phenothrin. Neither one of these insecticides is safe for use on cats.

Reinhard says over-the-counter treatments Bio Spot for cats and Hartz UltraGuard Pro, Flea & Tick Drops for Cats contain etofenprox and methoprene which are safe to use on cats according to the manufacturers. He isn’t aware of any problems associated with the products.

Picking the Right Flea Treatment

Gross suggests that as a precaution, owners also ask their veterinarians about new flea treatments. “There are new products coming out all the time,” she says. “Vets are always trying something new, just ask about their favorite.”

Article provided by VIP Pet Insurance and eartheasy.com

8 common household chemicals that may be harmful to your pets and their healthier alternatives.

Pets are more vulnerable than people to exposure to toxins in and around the home. Since pets are smaller, they are closer to carpets, garage floors, lawns and restricted spaces which may harbor chemical and pesticide residues. Their natural curiosity, coupled with a lack of awareness about toxic hazards, make them more likely to encounter substances harmful to their health. Animals also have faster metabolisms and smaller lungs than we do. Their bodies have to work harder to try and eliminate these toxins. Not only are they processing these chemicals at a faster rate, they are also breathing them in more rapidly.

Most pet owners go to great lengths to care for their pets, but there are unseen health hazards to pets which are commonly overlooked, yet easily avoided. Here is a list of potentially toxic materials which may be affecting the long-term health of your pet.

1. Flea control chemicals

flea control chemicalsFlea control is a challenge for most pet owners. Surveys show that as many as 50% of American families report using some kind of flea and tick control product on pets, exposing millions of pets (and children) to flea control chemicals on a daily basis.

Flea repellent products labelled as ‘natural’ may still be toxic to your pet. The chemical d’Limonene, derived from citrus peels and found in many natural anti-flea products, can be highly toxic to cats. Flea sprays and dips which contain “all natural Pyrethrin” can be toxic to some pets, and Pyrethroids , synthetic derivatives of pyrethrins, expose your pet to more chemicals.

Flea control formulations which use essential oils can be particularly hazardous to cats. Essential oils are absorbed rapidly into their skin and enter the bloodstream, and because cats do not efficiently metabolize essential oils, exposure can build to toxic levels. And while there may be no initial adverse reaction, the effects of essential oils can be cumulative and manifest themselves at a later date. Other natural ingredients known to cause allergic reactions or have toxic effects in some animals include Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and Pennyroyal oil.

Pet-safe Alternatives:

  • Electric flea traps, also called ‘plug-in’ flea traps, are effective for controlling flea populations and are safe for indoor use around pets. These traps are inexpensive and easy to use.
  • Diatomaceous earth is a nontoxic substance which will control flea populations in the home, and will also kill other insect pests such as ants, roaches, sow bugs and most home insect invaders.

For homes with persistent flea control challenges, it is recommended to use electric flea traps to reduce the active flea population, followed by the application of diatomaceous earth to control emerging populations over time.

2. Lawn fertilizers

lawn fertilizingLawn fertilizers are often combined with herbicides, commonly referred to as ‘weed n’ feed’. In a 1991 study published in The Journal of the National Cancer Institute, a link was found between the herbicide 2, 4-D and malignant lymphoma in dogs and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in people. According to the study, “researchers report that dogs were two times more likely to develop lymphoma if their owners sprayed or sprinkled the 2,4-D herbicide on the lawn four or more times a year. And even with just one application a season, the cancer risk was one-third higher than among dogs whose owners did not use the chemical.”

Even if you do not use chemical-based lawn fertilizers, your neighbors may. Dogs are more vulnerable than humans to lawn care chemicals since dogs run ‘barefoot’, and often roll, sniff and dig in the grass. Some dogs even eat grass occasionally.

Pet-safe Alternatives:

  • Corn gluten is a natural, nontoxic alternative to commercial ‘weed ‘n feed’ products. Corn gluten is an organic fertilizer and a pre-emergent weed killer which has become popular for use in residential lawns as well as school fields and golf courses. Exposure to corn gluten is safe for pets.
  • Awareness. Know where your pet goes when outside the home, especially in spring and fall when lawn fertilizers are applied. Wipe or wash your dog’s paws after running on lawns which may have been recently treated with fertilizers.

3. Garden herbicides and insecticides

herbicide, insecticide sprayingHerbicides, insecticide baits, sprays and granules are often used in gardens without consideration of the effects these chemicals may have on pets. Slug and snail baits containing metaldehyde are toxic, and can be lethal, to dogs if ingested. Metaldehyde toxicity causes rapid onset of neurological symptoms that can be fatal if untreated. Signs of poisoning begin within one to four hours of exposure. Repeated seizures due to metaldehyde poisoning can elevate body temperature, which can lead to complications similar to those observed in pets suffering from heatstroke. Affected pets usually require hospitalization for 24 to 72 hours after metaldehyde ingestion.

Fly bait and garden insecticides often contain methomyl or carbofuran, which can cause seizures and respiratory arrest in dogs and cats. Organophosphate toxicity from garden insecticides may lead to chronic anorexia, muscle weakness and muscle twitching which may last for days or weeks. Some organophosphate insecticides commonly used include coumaphos, cyothioate, diazinon, fampfhur, fention, phosmet, and tetrachlorvinphos. These insecticides inhibit cholinesterases and acetylcholinesterase, essential enzymes which break down acetylcholine, causing seizures and shaking due to continuous nervous transmission to nervous tissue, organs and muscles.

Pet-safe Alternatives:

  • The Flies Be Gone fly trap uses nontoxic sterilized food materials as bait, and is very effective for outdoor fly control.
  • Holey Moley nontoxic mole control uses the natural ingredients Castor Oil and Fuller’s Earth to repel moles. These ingredients are safe for pets, children and the environment.
  • See our guides to Natural Slug Control and Nontoxic Garden Pest Control for nontoxic solutions to most common outdoor insect pest problems.
  • If pesticides are used, always store them in inaccessible areas—and read the manufacturer’s label carefully for proper usage and storage.

4. De-icing salts

salt for melting iceDe-icing salts used to melt snow and ice pose a hazard to pets. When dogs lick their paws after having walked on surfaces treated with de-icing salts they may become sick. This limited exposure can lead to short-lived sickness such as hypersalivating, nausea and vomiting. Larger ingestions, according to the ASPCA, can lead to an increase in the blood’s electrolyte levels, weakness, lethargy, moderate irritation to the oral and gastrointestinal system, and even tremors. De-icing salts can also cause burns, cracks and skin irritations on dogs’ paw pads.

The most commonly used de-icer is rock salt (sodium chloride). This is also the least expensive de-icing salt. Other ice-melt formulations use potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium carbonate or calcium magnesium acetate. These formulations are less toxic than sodium chloride but they are also more expensive.

Pet-safe Alternatives:

  • Waterproof ‘pet boots’ are recommended during winter walks on treated icy surfaces.
  • Sand, crushed cinder, or cat litter can provide traction on icy pavement, although they do not melt the ice.
  • De-icers containing calcium chloride or potassium chloride are safer for pets but they are more expensive. Calcium chloride de-icer costs about three times as much as sodium chloride de-icer. De-icers marketed as “pet friendly” are preferred for use, however prolonged exposure can still cause irritation to pets.
  • Wash off your dog’s paws with a wet towel after walking on de-icing salts.

5. Antifreeze

antifreezeMost antifreeze formulations in use today contain ethylene glycol as the principal ingredient. The sweet smell of ethylene glycol attracts animals, but it is deadly if ingested even in small amounts. As little as half a teaspoon of spilled antifreeze can kill an average-sized cat, and eight ounces can kill a 75-pound dog. Unless you catch it early, the damage to pets’ kidneys can be irreversible. Spilled or leaked antifreeze also washes into rivers and lakes, harming fish and other wildlife.

Pet owners should be aware of the potential danger of antifreeze, and keep an eye out for any small green puddles in the garage or the pavement where cars are parked. Leaks from engine coolant systems are not common, but small spills may occur when topping up the car’s coolant reservoir.

Pet-safe Alternatives:

  • Use “Low Tox” antifreeze made of propylene glycol. This is just as effective as ethylene glycol, but it is a little more expensive. The added cost is hidden – the mix ratio for ethylene glycol is 50:50 (antifreeze/water), while the propylene glycol mix is 60/40. But considering how little antifreeze car owners need to buy, the added cost is a small price to pay for safety to pets and the environment.

6. Household cleaners

household cleanersAccording to the EPA, 50% of all illness can be traced to indoor pollution, which can be directly related to the use of household cleaners. The National Center for Health Sciences says “… perhaps the most serious exposure is to modern household cleaners, which may contain a number of proven and suspect causes of cancer.” Cleaning products with ingredients such as bleach, ammonia, chlorine, glycol ethers or formaldehyde can put pets at risk for cancer, anemia, liver and kidney damage.

Even when the toxic cleaners are put away and closed, the vapors left behind can continue to harm both us and our pets.

Ammonia, found in oven cleaners and window cleaning formulations, is an irritant to the mucous membranes. Chlorine is a toxic respiratory irritant that can damage pets’ skin, eyes or other membranes. It can be found in all-purpose cleaners, automatic dishwashing detergents, tile scrubs, disinfecting wipes, toilet-bowl cleaners, laundry detergents and mildew removers. Chlorine is heavier than air and lands in low-lying areas where pets live. Because your pets are smaller and breathe faster than adults, they are even more vulnerable than children to toxic exposure.

Laundry Detergent residue left behind on clothes and pet blankets can be harmful to your pet, especially those that chew on their bedding. Toilet bowl cleaners may be ingested by pets who have the habit of drinking from the toilet bowl.

Pet-safe Alternatives:

  • Most home cleaning chores can be done without the need for commercial chemically-based home cleaners which may be toxic to pets. For a list of non-toxic home cleaners which you can make yourself, see our page Nontoxic Home Cleaning.
  • Nellie’s All-Natural Dishwashing Powder uses biodegradable, nontoxic ingredients to clean dishes safely and effectively.
  • Soap Nuts Laundry Liquid replaces chemical-based detergents with the natural cleaning properties of saponin, extracted from the Soapberry tree.
  • Nellie’s All-Natural Laundry Nuggets are nontoxic, biodegradable, hypoallergenic and leave no residue on clothing or bedding.

7. Formaldehyde

formladehyde Formaldehyde is present in many new home furnishings, household cleaners and some construction materials. It is considered toxic if inhaled or absorbed through the skin. According to the EPA, formaldehyde has been shown to cause cancer in animals.

Pets can inhale formaldehyde from new fabrics, wood-veneer furniture, laminated flooring, wood paneling and doors made of particleboard, plywood, and medium density fiberboard. These pressed woods are bonded with resins containing formaldehyde.

Formaldehyde emissions are highest from new pressed wood furniture, drapery and unwashed new fabrics such as upholstery fabrics, and will gradually subside over time. New furnishings which contain formaldehyde should be set outdoors for a few days to “out-gas” before bringing into the home. Rooms which contain new furniture or draperies should be well ventilated. Wash new clothing and bedding before use to remove formaldehyde-containing fabric finishes. Consider buying solid wood or used furniture.

Newer mobile homes and trailers are made using materials which contain formaldehyde, and many illnesses have been reported from occupants. The mobile homes provided by the government for victims of the Katrina hurricane sickened many people due to the off-gassing fumes.

Air purifiers are ineffective at removing gaseous pollutants and should not be used to mitigate formaldehyde off-gassing. Ventilation is the preferred option.

Pet-safe Alternatives:

  • Dog houses should be made of solid wood. Plywood and pressed wood products should be avoided, but if they are used they should be painted on both sides.
  • New dog cushions and blankets should be washed or left outdoors to off-gas for several days before letting the dog come into contact with them.
  • Dogs kept in apartments or small homes during the day should have access to fresh air. Keep a screened window open if possible.

8. Mothballs

moth ballsMothballs, when used properly, are effective at killing moths. But used carelessly, they pose a hidden health threat to pets. Inhalation of mothball vapors causes headaches, respiratory distress, eye irritation and many other symptoms. Ingestion causes toxic poisoning leading to liver damage, respiratory failure, seizures, heart arrhythmia, and the possibility of death. The ingestion of just one mothball can produce significant illness. Repeated inhalation of fumes or ingestion of a few mothballs can be fatal to cats and dogs.

Pets can be attracted to the curious smell of mothballs. This leads them to heightened exposures to which the pet owner is unaware. Ongoing exposure to mothball fumes in the home may remain undetected which results in long-term exposure for the pet.

Mothballs are impregnated with either naphthalene or paradichlorobenzene, both toxic substances. They work by releasing toxic vapors which build up within airtight spaces and kill any moths or moth larvae emerging from the clothing or other stored items. Mothballs should only be used in closed, airtight containers where the pesticide fumes are trapped. If mothballs are not kept in sealed containers, the vapors are gradually released into the room. This long term exposure can pose health concerns if the exposure is high enough.

Pet-safe Alternatives:

  • Make moth-repelling sachets using small squares of cheesecloth stuffed with juniper shavings (aromatic cedar, pencil cedar) and place them in closets, bureaus and clothes chests.
  • Buy non-toxic pheromone-based clothes moth traps.

~~~~~~

Domestic pets may have keen senses of smell and hearing which alert them to danger, but they have no defence against the hidden dangers of chemicals in your home. As a pet owner, you will need to identify the presence of these unseen hazards and take preventive measures to ensure your pet’s long term good health.
Article provided by eartheasy.com

Food Recalls – Signs of Salmonella Poisoning

Manufacturers have recently issued voluntary recalls on several brands.

If you are currently feeding your pet one of these brands, please read the details of the recall below:

Affected Brands:
– Natural Balance
– Canidae
– Chicken Soup For the Pet Lover’s Soul
– Country Value
– Diamond
– Diamond Naturals
– Premium Edge
– Professional
– 4Health
– Taste Of The Wild
– Wellness
– Kirkland
– Apex
– Kaytee Fort-Diets

Signs of salmonella poisoning – click here.

BLACKMAN INDUSTRIES, INC. RECALLS PRIMETIME BRAND 2 CT., AND 5 CT.PREMIUM PIG EARS AND KC BEEFHIDE BRAND 20 CT. PREMIUM PIG EARS BECAUSE OFPOSSIBLE SALMONELLA HEALTH RISK

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE – May 17, 2011 – Blackman Industries, Inc. of Kansas City, KS is recalling all PrimeTime brand 2 ct. and 5 ct. Premium Pig Ears and all KC Beefhide brand 20 ct. Premium Pig Ears because they have the potential to be contaminated with Salmonella. Salmonella can affect animals and there is risk to humans from handling contaminated pet products. People handling the recalled pig ears can potentially become infected with Salmonella, especially if they have not thoroughly washed their hands after giving them to their pet. Read More...

Kroger Recalls Pet Foods Due to Possible Health Risk

The Kroger Co. said today it is recalling select packages of pet food sold in some of its retail stores because the products may contain aflatoxin, which poses a health risk to pets. Kroger stores in the following states are included in this recall: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia.

Please follow this link for more information.

The respiratory system of a parrot

An article on the Respiratory system of birds that I thought was rather interesting for those of you that have parrots!

Respiratory System of Birds: Anatomy and Function

Veterinary Services Department, Drs. Foster & Smith, Inc.
Holly Nash, DVM, MS

Respiration in birds is much different than in mammals.

  • African Grey ParrotBirds have a larynx, but it is not used to make sounds. Instead, an organ termed the “syrinx” serves as the “voice box.”
  • Birds have lungs, but they also have air sacs. Depending upon the species, the bird has seven or nine air sacs. The air sacs include:
    • Two posterior thoracic
    • Two abdominal
    • Two anterior thoracic
    • Two cervical (these are not present in some species)
    • One interclavicular
    Air Sacs of a Bird

    Illustration of the air sacs of a bird
  • The air sacs of birds extend into the humerus (the bone between the shoulder and elbow), the femur (the thigh bone), the vertebrae and even the skull.
  • Birds do not have a diaphragm; instead, air is moved in and out of the respiratory system through pressure changes in the air sacs. Muscles in the chest cause the sternum to be pushed outward. This creates a negative pressure in the air sacs, causing air to enter the respiratory system. Expiration is not passive, but requires certain muscles to contract to increase the pressure on the air sacs and push the air out. Because the sternum must move during respiration, it is essential that it is allowed to move freely when a bird is being restrained. Holding a bird “too tight” can easily cause the bird to suffocate.
  • Because birds have air sacs that reach into the bones, and have no diaphragm, respiratory infections can spread to the abdominal cavity and bones.
  • Bird lungs do not expand or contract like the lungs of mammals. In mammalian lungs, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs in microscopic sacs in the lungs, called ‘alveoli.’ In the avian lung, the gas exchange occurs in the walls of microscopic tubules, called ‘air capillaries.’
  • The respiratory system of birds is more efficient than that of mammals, transferring more oxygen with each breath. This also means that toxins in the air are also transferred more efficiently. This is one of the reasons why fumes from teflon are toxic to birds, but not to mammals at the same concentration.
  • When comparing birds and mammals of similar weight, birds have a slower respiratory rate.
  • Respiration in birds requires two respiratory cycles (inspiration, expiration, inspiration, expiration) to move the air through the entire respiratory system. In mammals, only one respiratory cycle is necessary.

Respiratory cycle of a bird

  1. Respiratory Cycle of a Bird
    Illustration of the respiratory cycle of a bird

    During the first inspiration, the air travels through the nostrils, also called nares, of a bird, which are located at the junction between the top of the upper beak and the head. The fleshy tissue that surrounds them, in some birds, is called the cere. As in mammals, air moves through the nostrils into the nasal cavity. From there it passes through the larynx and into the trachea. Air moves through the trachea to the syrinx, which is located at the point just before the trachea divides in two. It passes through the syrinx and then the air stream is divided in two as the trachea divides. The air does not go directly to the lung, but instead travels to the caudal (posterior) air sacs. A small amount of air will pass through the caudal air sacs to the lung.

  2. During the first expiration, the air is moved from the posterior air sacs through the ventrobronchi and dorsobronchi into the lungs. The bronchi continue to divide into smaller diameter air capillaries. Blood capillaries flow through the air capillaries and this is where the oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged.
  3. When the bird inspires the second time, the air moves to the cranial air sacs.
  4. On the second expiration, the air moves out of the cranial air sacs, through the syrinx into the trachea, through the larynx, and finally through the nasal cavity and out of the nostrils.

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